Why were the Mongols so effective? | World History | Khan Academy

Posted By on November 14, 2019


Posted by Lewis Heart

This article has 100 comments

  1. Precision, Horse Riding, Archery, Bows, Arrows, Armor, Accuracy, and more allowed them to win many battles

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  2. You forgot one important reason: Mongols could drink the milk from their horses which they were riding. Therefore, they could conquer this extensive territory very fast because they didn't need any supply routes etc.

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  3. Genghiz |Cəņgiz| Jengiz|
    Kublai |kub.lai|
    Polo visited the Kumykh Mongols at the northern end of the Caspian Sea.

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  4. they were warriors with chinese technology, the piercing arrows involve very hard steel, and require little steel to pierce an armor, this was their first weapon, mongols paid chinese engineers much more than what chinese did, and in no other period in history were the chinese engineers better than under mongols rule, passing exams for chinese was the most important and this was spurned by the mongols who valued more what the engineer did than the exams

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  5. can you guys make video regarding the persian empire, because it seems it's the most stable empire in ancient history in term of it's adminstration

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  6. the incompetence of their opponents is seldom mentioned as a reason for the Mongol success. in their 1st invasions they deal with incompetent opponents and appear unstoppable. as time went on the opposition learns from their mistakes they are able to repel invasions or to drive the Mongol forces out of their countries. the Mongols no longer appear invincible but are beaten on a regular basis. All the military prowess of the Super Mongol Soldiers the fanboy’s rave about seem to have totally degraded! 57 years after Genghis Khan’s death in 1285 the Mongol force attacking Hungary was annihilated. a year later the Mongols were routed in Poland. the Mongols Never posed a serious threat to those countries or Europe again. what happened to the vaunted Mongol war machine? all that training! all that discipline! all the glowing virtues the fanboys gush about seems were NOT so much when facing competent military opponents. the Mongols are defeated in Syria, Hungary, Poland, Korea, Vietnam, Java, Japan, driven out of China in 1368 and Russia in time. they end up being defeated everywhere. one would think they had forgotten how to fight. had they faced good political and military forces at the start the Mongol Empire might well have been confined to Mongolia.

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  7. Because of their mongoloid visuospatial abilities. They just crumpled enemy soldiers telekinetically through mental folding.

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  8. The Mongols and central Asians just amaze me, the Khwarazmids, the Gökturks, Xiongnu, Mongols, these group of people are so notorious for conquering such big lands from small beginnings.

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  9. one might ask why given the glowing accounts of the Mongol Army's training and discipline why it degraded so quickly? 57 years after Genghis Khan’s death in 1285 the Mongol force attacking Hungary was annihilated. a year later the Mongols were routed in Poland. the Mongols Never posed a serious threat to those countries or Europe again. what happened to the vaunted Mongol war machine? all that training! all that discipline! all the glowing virtues the fanboys gush about? the Mongols are defeated in Syria, Hungary, Poland, Korea, Vietnam, Java, Japan, driven out of China in 1368 and Russia in time. they are pushed back across Eurasia eventually to be conquered and controlled by the Chinese for almost 300 years till 1911.

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  10. Mongols were the first to use Blitzkrieg. Leaving most of their enemies scrambling to catch up. Only a wall or island in the case of Japan,slow them down. If mongols had armored ships they would be unstoppable.

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  11. There battle tactics were not new …the Parthian horse archers who faced Rome 2000 years ago used basically the same tactics …as did Attila ….recurve bow and retreat using mobility and all the time continue a rain of arrows down upon the slower moving foe ….if the Mongols would of faced the English longbow then they would of been out ranged by a far heavier hitting arrow ..fired from the longbow which is the most powerful bow ever made !!

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  12. i think theres 1 thing that the mongols and alexander the great had in common and that was surrender and your okay resest your dead meat backstab me your dead meat simple but effective only difference i think was alexander did not kill people who took shelter in temples where the mongols did but thats up for debate

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  13. Mongols killed everybody because it's same tradition in their tribes . Tribes fought , eliminated other tribes ,occupied their lands of prairies ..

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  14. I would disagree with describing the Mongol expansion as 'decentralized' taking over 'centralized.' Certainly before 1206 they were decentralized, but after the declaration of empire in 1206 power was almost totally in the hands of Chinggis Khan and close associates. As the empire expanded it became less centralized as due to its geographical size local and regional administrators gained more power (by necessity) but in terms of the military component describing it as decentralized would be very inaccurate, until the 1260s when the empire effectively broke into 4 independent Khanates, although the 1240s certainly saw the future Golden Horde gradually becoming more autonomous.

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  15. Once the Russians and Chinese managed to get rid of the mongol yoke, once they learned to neutralize the mongol's military superiority, they just crushed them and turned Mongolia into the small and unfeasible country it is today. To add insult to injury, the Russians and Chinese made a vow never to allow mongols to have any power ever again! In the long run, the result of Genghis Khan's conquest and genocide is only this; the unfeasibility of Mongolia's prosperity, the land of the eternal blue sky has become the land of the eternal subjugation and poverty!

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  16. barbarians are usually only successful against civilizations when those centers of power are disorganized or waning. one might ask why given the glowing accounts of the Mongol Army’s training and discipline it degraded so quickly? 57 years after Genghis Khan’s death in 1285 the Mongol force attacking Hungary was annihilated. a year later the Mongols were routed in Poland. the Mongols Never posed a serious threat to those countries or Europe. had the Mongols faced a united and determined China when Genghis Khan 1st attacked they would have been crushed which is what in fact happened as time went on. in 1368 after less than 100 years of occupation the Chinese were able to drive the Mongols out of their country. had the Mongols forgotten how to fight in that century? No! the Chinese just united and had competent military leadership. the key to Mongol success i believe had more to to with their luck in facing incompetent enemies than any abilities on their part. the German Army looked unstoppable in 1939-40 but it was due more to the blunders of the Allies than German arms. had the Allies commanders like Helmuth von Moltke or Heinz Guderian the German offensive would not have done so well. Mongols were eventually beaten by everyone and driven back across Eurasia.

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  17. One thing everyone did not mention is that the Mongol army needed almost no logistic supply. The brought their herds with them. Their soldiers were extremely tough, ate everything available, including human flesh.

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  18. Lot of misunderstanding about Mongols and Chingis Khan, actually most of his soilders who invaded Europe were not Mongols, but the Huns, Turks, mix-races.

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  19. 3:37 There is NO northern song at the time of mongols, Northern song was conquered by Jin dynasty, the han chinese then establish southern song.

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  20. They were originating from the 2000 to 2005 and Cultural Revolution textbook reported Mengshu Shiwei Revolutionary Food Council unless Work, or Catastrophe Councils later described as around hundred and twenty tribal divisions which derived from the Spade Money Movement first hammer and sickle ever in the Middle Ages on this historical stage Revolution was described as Sudden Struggle Wei was council this is Cantonese Zovlol council in Mongolian the Sow in the Hun tradition the Khitan Mongols executed their generals and wrapped them in pigskin at their councils they wanted Ezent Guren Mongolyn United Revolutionary State as Mongol meant a/n old word for revolutionary, assimilated to Mongol a brave, and was also written Mangqol Council of Wang Mang or also Ascendant Justice but a/n apparently blind peasant leader followers of this council movement they used a dark red old red" hong" standard, in the beginning and had the fastest horses and best bows and practical swords and devised siege machinery at the time and were relatively emancipated for women

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  21. 3:34 "especially from the conquest of the Western Xia and the Northern Song"
    The Northern Song had been replaced by the Jin dynasty in the north of China for almost a century by the time of Genghis Khan's invasion of the region.

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  22. While the Mongol Empire did take many lives during its period of conquest it did not engage in mindless slaughter lightly. When Chinghis Khan had established his control over essentially what is now modern Mongolia he was ready to settle down and begin trading. It was the Khwarzim empire that assassinated Mongolian trade ambassadors which ignited the middle eastern conquest. The Mongolians also the vast majority of the time offered surrender and would spare the population, besides the ruling nobles if accepted. Full slaughter would only occur when surrender was accepted and they were later betrayed by the population. Middle Eastern accounts heavily exaggerate the death toll and are entirely too biased to be taken seriously.

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  23. One little note that you won't hear even academic historians admitting (HUGE TABOO…) is the fact it was not the Mongols first building the Empire and Venetians coming then but the other way around : Genghis Khan even at his very first steps was surrounded by Venetian "consultants". I do not know how many of you can digest this piece of information (which I welcome you to cross-verify). Why would Venetian "consultants" be in the court of a random nomad mongol chieftain. Well…. Venetians were already in the Chinese court but it seems the Chinese kingdoms' who were 3 at that time did not always bend over to Venetian interests all 3 of them so Venetians would prefer to just have one take them all over and who better than an oursider Mongol? Didn't Venetians implicitly support the Seljuk invasion in Minor Asia? Sure they supported it.

    What is amazing is that Venice in the span of a mere 20 years, they managed to bring down Eastern Roman Empire, the kingdom of Xsia, the kingdom of Liu and the kingdom of Kara Kitai (if I spell correctly all these) which back then were the most advanced, most civilized most trade-oriented places in the world and the 2 ends of the Eurasian trade. Venetians bringing in the Franks to destroy Constantinople, and bringing in the Mongols into the overall region of China made them masters of the world. People often forget that for the next 3 centuries, Venice run the basic affairs of the whole of Eurasia and would continue to do so had the Portuguese and Spanish not found the way round by circumnavigation of Africa and then (re)discovering America which opened up new possibilities. STILL Venice even of losing value, up to the end of the 18th century hosted the 5 richest families of Europe. Western Europe in particular is basically a Venetian invention. Venetian power is the most underrated in human history. In reality these guys, based at a small city defended by a small army were ruling the world, something that no other power in the world has ever matched to this day – US tries to do so with a massive military and 1000s of bases around the world while Venetians were doing it with a few trade-deals and agents and spies sending letters and reports to each other!

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  24. #correction – @3:38 it was Jin Dynasty in the northern China not the northern Song. Song Dynasty had lost traditional Chinese homeland in the north decades earlier to Jin. The later part of Song Dynasty is always called as Southern Song. There wasn't a dynasty such a northern Song ever.

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  25. Your analysis is somewhat faulty. The primary reason that you state, planing, is not correct. The primary reason is unity. The various tribes being united under one ruler who then directs the entirety of his forces against one objective is what allowed the Mongols to succeed. The fact that they were not interested in holding territory comes from two main reasons. First, they were nomads and second, it takes manpower to hold territory. It's much easier to move from target to target on mass then to leave forces behind to hold the conquered territory, so in order to ensure that hey wouldn't have to fight the same people twice, they simply eliminated them.

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  26. As far as the bubonic plague is concerned, its origins are not in Mongolia, but rather southern China. Owing to dense populations, squalid conditions and warmer the climate, the rat population in that region was extremely high, and it is the rats which when moved along trade routes from Asia to Europe allowed the flees that host the bacteria to transmit the disease.

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  27. I believe the most underlying reason behing their success is that they just came to destroy. They didn't have an aim like gaining trust of the people living in the occupied land. It was obvious that their success will not last very long.

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  28. Oh man. Where to start? Besides what's mentioned in the video: Practically all of the Mongols had composite recurve bows, they weren't dependent on supply like soldiers from sedentary cultures, their horses were tough and resilient on a different level than other horses and everybody had more than one, they were tough people whose very way of life enabled them to very literally be a warrior nation, they had no financial dependency, once a strong enough leader (Khan) took over then they had no fragmented leadership, there was excellent generalship under that leadership.

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  29. How do I create a similar video like this? What do I need? which programs shall I use? Can someone help me?

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  30. They were great warriors with absolutely loyalties under supreme leaderships. Totally unified. The day the empire declined was the day they had internal conflicts, leadership segregation. The larger it gets the harder It takes to keep things together. As powerful and deeply loved and respected as Genghis Khan was, he still had troubles keeping his legitimate sons from warring each other, most Notability was the conflict between his oldest son Yuchi and his other brute Son Chagatai. Later on, a war almost broke out between Yuchi and Genghis himself. It never occurred bc Yuchi died before it could happen.

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  31. There is a mistake that in early on Genhis khan was interested in vassal states already. Smaller non-mongol states were already incorporated before major conquest started. This was very common thing of tribal allegiance shifting for thousand years. Many western Turkic nomads of, between major nations, pledged loyalty and were tactical soldier providers-cooperators. Horezm shah and other muslim revolt, upon incursion to shah's territory changed tactics for terror and psychological warfare.

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  32. Genghis Khan was a psychopath. The Mongols conquered China and Persia and a lot of uninhabited grassland. The mongol empire only last a 100 years. Besides destroying Persia and murdering millions, the Mongols main contribution was the spread of the black death epidemics.

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  33. SPEED, FEAR & SURPRISE!
    The (speed) at which they attacked their enemies & the (fear) that they placed into the heart of those they intended to conquer, (surprised) the entire world!

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  34. The dead monggol king in Indonesia is history. "The Mongol-Tartars were defeated in the attack against the Japanese Empire in 1274 and 1281 CE.not to fail again as to the Japanese conquest, Kublai Khan led his own 300,000 troops to Java to punish Batara Kertanegara, the ruler of Singasari who cut off the ear of Meng Khi, Kublai Khan, who was sent to meet Kertanegara to submit to the Mongols In 1293 AD, the Yuan State maharaja was killed with his head loosened from his body, which was likened to a war between King Kangsa and Little Krishna.

    Inscription Kertarajasa mention, conquering the emperor's hair became the decoration of the throne Batara Kertarajasa Jayawardhana (Raden Wijaya). The body and head of Kublai Khan were returned to the Yuan Dynasty court. The corpse arrived at Yuan's palace in February 1294 AD. The Mongol defeat of Java made the corpse of Kublai Khan not treated as the previous Yuan Dynasty ruler. Her body was carried for three weeks for 1,000 kilometers and on the slopes of Burkhan Khaldun, Khenti Mountains, the corpse was buried.

    Tartar ends as a state conquered Majapahit. Kidung Harsawijaya VI.177 b mentioned: "Sakwe ing satru wus enti dinon denira Sri Bhupati katekeng Nusantara akweh log lyan tungkul subhaktya karuhun tang Bali Tatar Tumasik Sampi Koci lan Desert Wandan Tanjungpura tan open tang Dampo Palembang Makasar prapta same mawwat session ni pura."

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  35. The number one contributing factor to effectiveness of the Mongols is how they are raised from day 1. Mongolians never spoon feed their children, they live in one of the most unforgiving environments and by age three they know how to ride a horse and participate in hunts with bow and arrow. The boys grow up constantly wrestling with each other to improve skill sets, develop strength and stamina, and test their resolve. Mongolians are a very tough, determined people who can readily adapt to any situation.

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  36. Northern Song? That was before Genghis… It was the Jin Empire and Xi Xia in northern China during this time

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  37. Kublai Khan Big armies approach Java, Indonesia, then Raden Wijaya (founder Majapahit Empire) defeated them, with guirrella warfare, because He knew Mongols Armies is very extremely big, and it is imposibble for open warfare.

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  38. Point 2, Adaptability, is really a combination of (1) Merit-based Rewards plus Tolerance for other peoples. They learned siege techniques from other peoples and because of (1) permitted them to apply their talents and rewarded them appropriately.

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  39. another reason is-they started off from a very hard life, everything from there was relatively easy, nothing got worse than it already was. like coasting downhill on a bike

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  40. Uniform culture that ranged along a massive geographic zone (mongol steppe nomads), massive surprise attack of divided kingdoms, light cavalry combined with well practiced archery and ruthless massacres. The mongols were not capable of successful direct engagement with a well trained and organized European army. Mongols had a fragile structure of hierarchy and inability to maintain solid and influential rule. Essentially they were savages that had several overwhelming battlefield tactics, yet they were not capable of establishing solid hold over conquered lands. They lacked the cultural maturity and social organization required to hold on to and manage defeated enemies in Europe, more so than in Asia.

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  41. First by uniting virtually all the the people employing the Mongol style of warfare, then unleashing that style (later known as blitzkrieg) on the rest of the world.

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  42. Because they had a great leader in Ghengis Khan, and also he United all the tribes of Mongolia, if the Native Americans had did the same, their land would not have been stolen by European invaders.

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  43. Because they didn’t believe in Humanity …Gods don’t Exist … They Believed Exclusively in her Own Blood… they Killed everything which is not Turkic this was her Gold which gives her the Power and Manifestation to Rule over the World… Tartaryian Power!!!

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  44. they werent just sweeping in and murdering people. In fact, they were actually interested in running an empire. Genghis khan wasnt just a man who wanted to hold territory. He asks people if they wanted to give up or not. If not, mongols fight them (not kill them all) and be in charge!

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