ISLAM – WikiVidi Documentary

Posted By on October 2, 2019 Islam Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world’s second-largest religion and with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, unique and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment. The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological viewpoint, Islam is historically believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, and by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, traders and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations: Sunni or Shia. Islam is the fastest-growing religion in the world. About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country, 23% in the Middle East–North Africa, where it is the dominant religion, 31% in South Asia, the largest population of Muslims in the world and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sizeable Muslim communities are also found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Russia. Etymology and meaning [^] Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, safeness, and peace. In a religious context it means “voluntary submission to God”. Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means “submission” or “surrender”. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means “submitter” or “one who surrenders”. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: “Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam.” Other verses connect Islam and religion together: “Today, I have perfected your religion for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion.” Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that also includes imān, and ihsān. Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive, because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims’ religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism. Some authors, however, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Concept of God [^] Islam is often seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions. Its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: “Say, He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him”. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, and reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus Muslims are not expected to visualise or anthropomorphise him. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning “The Compassionate” and Al-Rahīm, meaning “The Merciful”. Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God’s sheer command, “Be, and it is” and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God. He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, “I am nearer to him than jugular vein.” God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance “Tanrı” in Turkish, “Khodā” in Persian or “Ḵẖudā” in Urdu. Angels [^] Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel means “messenger”, like its counterparts in Hebrew and Greek. Angels do not possess any bodily desire and are not subject to temptations such as eating, drinking or procreation. Angels’ duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person’s actions, and taking a person’s soul at the time of death. Muslims believe that angels are made of light. They are described as “messengers with wings—two, or three, or four : He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases.” Some scholars have emphasized a metaphorical reinterpretation of the concept of angels. Pictorial depictions of angels are generally avoided in Islamic art, as the idea of giving form to anything immaterial is not accepted. Muslims therefore do not generally share the perceptions of angelic pictorial depictions, such as those found in Western art. Revelations [^] The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat and the Injil, had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both. The Quran is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal word of God and is widely regarded as the finest literary work in the classical Arabic language. Muslims believe that the verses of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel on many occasions between 610 CE until his death on June 8, 632. While Muhammad was alive, all of these revelations were written down by his companions, although the prime method of transmission was orally through memorization. The Quran is divided into 114 chapters which combined, contain 6,236 verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community. The Quran is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the “sourcebook of Islamic principles and values”. Muslim jurists consult the hadith, or the written record of Prophet Muhammad’s life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation. The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir. The set of rules governing proper elocution of recitation is called tajwid. Muslims usually view “the Quran” as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran. Prophets and sunnah [^] Muslims identify the ‘prophets’ of Islam as those humans chosen by God to be his messengers. According to the Quran, the prophets were instructed by God to bring the “will of God” to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God’s messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. The Quran mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others. Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad as the last law-bearing prophet to convey the divine message to the whole world. In Islam, the “normative” example of Muhammad’s life is called the Sunnah. Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad’s actions in their daily lives and the Sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran. This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as verbatim words of God quoted by Muhammad, but is not part of the Quran. A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad, and the actual wording, called matn. Hadiths can be classified, by studying the narration, as “authentic” or “correct”, called Sahih, “good”, called Ḥasan or “weak”, called Ḍaʻīf among others. Muhammad al-Bukhari collected over 300,000 hadith, but only included 2,602 distinct hadith that passed veracity tests that codified them as authentic into his book Sahih al-Bukhari, which is considered by Sunnis to be the most authentic source after the Quran. Another famous source of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference. Resurrection and judgment Belief in the “Day of Resurrection”, Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also crucial for Muslims. They believe the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God, but unknown to man. The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Quran and the hadith, and also in the commentaries of scholars. The Quran emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all mankind will be judged on their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah or Jahannam. The Qurʼan in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as, “So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it.” The Qurʼan lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief in God, and dishonesty; however, the Qurʼan makes it clear God will forgive the sins of those who repent if he so wills. Good deeds, such as charity, prayer and compassion towards animals, will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Qurʼanic references describing its features. Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God. Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also identified in the Quran as Yawm ad-Dīn, “Day of Religion”; as-sāʿah, “the Last Hour”; and al-Qāriʿah, “The Clatterer”. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitna or malahim. A common expectation depicts Armageddon with the arrival of the Mahdi who will be sent and with the help of Jesus, to battle the Antichrist. They will triumph, liberating Islam from cruelty, and this will be followed by a time of serenity with people living true to religious values. Acts of worship There are five basic religious acts in Islam, collectively known as ‘The Pillars of Islam’, which are considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are the creed, daily prayers, almsgiving, fasting during Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. Both Shia and Sunni sects agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts. Apart from these, Muslims also perform other religious acts. Notable among them are charity and recitation of the Quran. Testimony [^] The Shahadah, which is the basic creed of Islam that must be recited under oath with the specific statement: “”, or “I testify that there is no god, but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God”. This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed. Prayer [^] Ritual prayers are called Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt. Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Performing prayers five times a day is compulsory, but flexibility in the timing specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Quran. The prayers are done with the chest in direction of the kaaba though in the early days of Islam, they were done in direction of Jerusalem. The act of supplicating is referred to as dua. A Mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name masjid. A large mosque for gathering for Friday prayers or Eid prayers are called masjid jāmi. Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. In Medina, Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, or the Prophet’s Mosque, was also a place of refuge for the poor. Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets. The means used to signal the approach of prayer time is a vocal call, known as the adhan. Charity “Zakāt” is giving a fixed portion of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it to help the poor or needy and for those employed to collect Zakat; also, for bringing hearts together, freeing captives, for those in debt and for the traveller. It is considered a religious obligation that the well-off owe to the needy, because their wealth is seen as a “trust from God’s bounty”. Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions. The amount of zakat to be paid on capital assets is 2.5% per year, for people who are not poor. Sadaqah means optional charity which is practiced as religious duty and out of generosity. Both the Quran and the hadith have put much emphasis on spending money for the welfare of needy people, and have urged the Muslims to give more as an act of optional charity. The Quran says: “Spend something out of the substance which We have bestowed on you, before Death should come to any of you”. One of the early teachings of Muhammad was that God expects men to be generous with their wealth and not to be miserly. Accumulating wealth without spending it to address the needs of the poor is generally prohibited and admonished. Another kind of charity in Islam is waqf which means perpetual religious endowment. Fasting [^] Fasting from food and drink, among other things, must be performed from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramadan. The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, develop self-control and restraint and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts must be compensated for later. Pilgrimage [^] The obligatory Islamic pilgrimage, called the, has to be performed during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mina, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping God, following the foot steps of Abraham; then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah; then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil recounting Abraham’s actions; then going to Mecca and walking seven times around the Kaaba which Muslims believe was built as a place of worship by Abraham; then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Abraham’s wife, while she was looking for water for her son Ismael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement. Another form of pilgrimage, Umrah, can be undertaken at any time of the year. [ Visit or browse the channel ]

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