First Crusade Part 1 of 2

Posted By on October 13, 2019


In the Middle Ages, Europe and the Middle
East were divided between Christian states, or Christendom, and Muslim states. They were uneasy neighbours, and frequently
at war. On the frontline: the Eastern Roman or Byzantine
Empire, the major Christian power in the eastern Mediterranean. But in the 11th century, a powerful new force
emerged that threatened its very survival. The Seljuk Turks, originally from Central
Asia, migrated south, converted to Sunni Islam, and carved out a great empire for themselves. In 1071, at the Battle of Manzikert, the Seljuk
Turks inflicted a crushing defeat on the Byzantine Empire. They went on to conquer most of Anatolia. Cities such as Nicaea and Antioch, rich in
Christian history, fell to the Seljuk Turks. In 1092, the Great Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah
died, and his empire began to fragment. The Byzantine Empire came under renewed attack,
as local warlords sought territory and plunder. In 1095, Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus
wrote to Pope Urban II, making a desperate appeal for military aid from his fellow Christians
in the west. It wasn’t the first such appeal by the Emperor,
but this time, the results would be unlike anything ever seen before. Pope Urban saw the Emperor’s appeal as a golden
opportunity… … a chance to heal the rift that had emerged
between Western and Eastern churches in the Great Schism… … to assert his own, papal authority over
the unruly barons and bishops of western Christendom… And to drive back ‘the infidel’, and reclaim
Christianity’s most holy sites – most of all, Jerusalem, lost to Muslim rule 400 years
before. At Clermont in France, Pope Urban preached
a sermon to a gathering of clergy and nobles. He called on Christian knights and foot-soldiers
to go east, to aid their brother Christians, and free Jerusalem from Muslim rule. And he offered a unique spiritual incentive: “Whoever for devotion alone, not to gain
honour or money, goes to Jerusalem to liberate the Church of God can substitute this journey
for all penance.” He was offering Europe’s knights, who lived
in fear of damnation because of the violent lives they led, the chance to atone for their
sins through holy war. What’s more, their objective – Jerusalem – was
a city that captivated the medieval imagination like no other – the most holy place on earth. The Pope’s offer exhilarated his audience
– his words were met with cries of ‘Deus vult! Deus vult!… God wills it! God wills it!’ The Pope’s appeal was preached across Europe,
sparking a wave of religious fervour. Thousands of lords, knights and ordinary people
vowed to travel to the Holy Land and fight for Christ. They identified themselves by wearing a cross,
later becoming known as ‘crucesignatus’ – crusaders. A few of these men saw opportunity in the
east for fame and fortune. But overwhelmingly, they went in search of
spiritual salvation – willing to undertake a long, expensive and perilous journey to
save their souls from the fires of hell. Pope Urban had intended the crusade to be
led by nobles, and made up of knights and experienced soldiers. But the viral success of his appeal led thousands
of ordinary townsfolk and peasants to take the cross – many inspired by a French priest
known as Peter the Hermit, who became leader of this so-called People’s Crusade. In the Rhineland, some of these crusaders,
fired up by old prejudices and talk of holy war, attacked local Jewish communities, slaughtering
around 5,000 men, women and children, and extorting money from those they spared. These massacres were condemned by the church,
but to little effect. In the summer of 1096, the People’s Crusade,
20 to 40,000 strong, made its way east. The main contingent, led by Peter the Hermit,
travelled along the River Danube. But they were ill-disciplined and poorly-prepared. When they ran out of food in Hungary, they
attacked and looted Christian settlements. They continued to pillage the land of their
supposed ally, the Byzantine Empire. When they reached Constantinople, the Emperor
quickly ferried them to Anatolia, to be rid of them. In enemy territory, lacking discipline or
leadership, their main force was soon ambushed and slaughtered by the Turks. Meanwhile, some of Europe’s most powerful
feudal lords were departing for the Holy Land at the head of their own contingents. They were much better armed and organised
than the disastrous People’s Crusade. They included, from Lorraine, Godfrey of Bouillon,
with his brothers Eustace and Baldwin of Boulogne. Hugh of Vermandois, younger brother of the
French King. Count Robert of Flanders, and Duke Robert
of Normandy, son of William the Conqueror. The wealthy Stephen of Blois. From Provence, Count Raymond of Toulouse,
accompanied by the Crusade’s spiritual leader, papal legate Adhémar of Le Puy. And from southern Italy, Norman lords Bohemond
of Taranto, and his nephew Tancred. The various contingents converged for their
agreed rendezvous at Constantinople. Together, they formed a huge army, perhaps
60,000 strong – probably the largest seen in Europe since the fall of the Western Roman
Empire. The Byzantine Emperor, Alexius, had expected
to welcome a small force of Western mercenaries, who’d serve under Byzantine command. But the giant Crusader force that began arriving
in December 1096 made him nervous and distrustful – particularly the presence of Bohemond
of Taranto, who’d spent much of his life attacking the Byzantine Empire. Alexius gave the Crusaders money, supplies
and guides, but only after their leaders swore oaths of fealty, and promised to return all
Byzantine territory to the emperor – not keep it for themselves. Only then were they ferried across the Bosphorus,
into Anatolia. The Crusaders were a mighty military force,
particularly the armoured knights, who made up about a sixth of their strength. But they’d have to adapt rapidly to the heat,
terrain, and hit-and-run tactics of their Turkish enemy. In their favour – the Islamic world, and
the Great Seljuk Empire itself, was badly divided – its Turkish governors, or atabegs,
were busy fighting each other, as well as the Shia Fatimids of Egypt. None of them was prepared for the First Crusade,
or had any real understanding of its strength or aims. The Crusaders’ first success came at Nicaea,
which fell after a six week siege. But the city surrendered to the Byzantine
forces, cheating the Crusaders, as they saw it, of their rightful plunder. It was a further strain on the delicate relations
between Crusaders and Byzantines. They began marching inland, through intense
summer heat, in two columns – a vanguard under Bohemond of Taranto, and rearguard under Godfrey
of Bouillon. Then near Dorylaeum, Bohemond’s vanguard was
ambushed by the main Turkish army. Based on Crusader chronicles, this is our
best understanding of how the confused fighting unfolded… Bohemond, seeing he was about to be attacked
by a large force of enemy cavalry, sent an urgent message to the rearguard, asking for
assistance. Then he formed up his knights, and ordered
his infantry into a defensive formation behind them, protecting the camp followers. The Crusaders came under attack from all sides
– facing a hail of arrows from Turkish horse archers, as well as javelins, and hit-and-run
strikes from their faster light cavalry. The knights were driven back onto their own
infantry. Over several hours, losses mounted, but the
Crusader line held. Meanwhile, Godfrey was racing up with the
rearguard to join the battle. Troops were fed into the fighting as soon
as they arrived. On the Turks’ left flank, the Crusader advance
was hidden by the terrain, so that they appeared suddenly, threatening the Turks with encirclement. When the Christian knights all charged together,
the Turks panicked, turned and fled. It was a major victory for the Crusaders,
and allowed them to continue their advance across Anatolia without serious opposition. At Heraclea, they defeated a small Turkish
force, then split up. The main force struggled through the mountains
of Cappadocia, losing many of their baggage animals, and running dangerously low on supplies. Meanwhile Baldwin of Boulogne and Tancred,
probably out to seize land and plunder for themselves, travelled south into Cilicia,
capturing the city of Tarsus and other settlements. Tancred later rejoined the main army, but
Baldwin was invited by local Armenian Christians to travel to Edessa, where he was soon installed
as Count Baldwin of Edessa – ruler of the first ‘Crusader state’. In October 1097, the rest of the Crusaders
reached Antioch, the next stepping-stone on the road to Jerusalem. But outside its walls, the First Crusade would
come to the brink of disaster, decimated by disease and starvation, and encircled by their
enemies. It would take a miracle to save them from
annihilation. Research and artwork for this video comes
from Osprey Publishing’s extensive range of books on medieval history. Every Osprey book examines a particular battle,
campaign or combat unit in authoritative, meticulous detail. And with more than 3,000 titles, they cover
everything from ancient warfare to modern conflict. Visit their website to see their online catalogue. Thank you to all the Patreon supporters who
made this video possible. If you’d like to find out how you can support
the channel, and even get to vote on future topics, please visit our Patreon page by clicking
the link.

Posted by Lewis Heart

This article has 100 comments

  1. I hope you enjoy the video. If you do, please remember to click the like and subscribe buttons, and even share it. Epic History TV is not a company or team of people, it’s just one guy, so support from viewers really helps. If you’re even able to pledge $1 or more per video to help grow the channel, that would be awesome – you can do it at my Patreon page: https://www.patreon.com/EpicHistoryTV
    Thanks for watching.

    Reply
  2. saljugh empire spoke all persian. they were not turks. turks are a tribe that travelled alongside mongols changiz khan invaded middle east. turks live in china and mongolia.

    Reply
  3. What happened to captured people by turks ?
    İ dont even know this as a türk
    But Turks never kills unarmed people they May take their golds
    Sack their village ( this is medieval hu? ) But i dont think they like making massacare

    Reply
  4. Comments look like idiots be crasading again killttorching rapd believe they beyond guilt dumbass clueless about meaning and much I beyond guilt means can choose to stop showing way without feeling guilt . Reliogion not meaning of reliogion definition wrong lies mostly man piece of truth in all .idoits just be balanced I injust be debt owed some with in trust worms lie pretend know scum beyond nothing void of everything after debt paid in a dying sun in eye of fire purified HOLY SPIRIT out eye a dying sun bore the FATHER I AM ALL the FATHER SON HOLY SPIRIT in all out all of the all the FATHER without doubt must see eyes just beauty path be know to the .lines start and finish it returned two to one e endless life . Shown much I must be first on net that knows enlightment kis only door opening . If ego returned door open but blind to it get lost in self . If stay true and just Buddha finds you FYI said many miss turn . He direction on path he. Rings you to the FATHER then adopted back unbelievable people ego injust ignorance arrogance lies

    Reply
  5. No man can give other men pentance. Only God can forgive you and wash you in the blood of Jesus Christ and the holy Ghost Sanctify you from this wicked world. Not a Pope. I really did enjoy the history. Just not the false narrative of the Catholic.

    Reply
  6. This is so awesome I get goosebumps watching this. This is what US Europeans now I'm an American we need this now we need this sticking together for our Christian Heritage and not just for Heritage Christianity is true everybody in Europe used to believe this this really happened Christ was God he is God and we need to stand up and defend his honor that's being Spit On by this modernism in this defending of Islam in all of our Western countries that somehow wants to to defend Islam who wants to do nothing but kill all of us

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  7. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IS RESPONSIBLE FOR MANY ATROCITIES AGAINST HUMAN BEINGS AND USES RELIGION AS A CAUSE FOR MURDERING THOUSANDS. OUR FATHER IN HEAVEN NEVER ADVOCATED THESE ATROCITIES. THE POPE AND ROYALTY WILL BE HELD ACCOUNTABLE IN THE END. THESE WERE DEMONS NOT MEN OF GOD. AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IS RUN BY DEMONS YET TODAY. ANOTHER FALSE RELIGION AND TEACHINGS

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  8. History says they murdered, raped & then tried to burn down everything. That dont sound like folks fighting for spiritual saving. Sounds like Romes trash took a trip

    Reply
  9. Three Abraham religion
    Many prophets
    Moses
    David
    Jacob
    Solomon
    Jesus
    Mohammed
    Still they fight each other
    But one thing is clear Abraham's religion are real

    Reply
  10. They faught the Crusades for all those years only to have the EU let in millions of muslim migrants in each year.
    There has been 87 Islamic terror attacks across Europe between 2014 and 2018

    Reply
  11. More than 80% of crusaders where from France and Belgium. Just few europeans troops came with them.

    Why muslims and turcs called the crusaders "french"…

    Reply
  12. The reason the Muslim nation's were at war with the christaindom was simply because roman Empire formed a new abrahamic religion which pinned Jesus a political Jew as a Messiah. They changed the truth and placed a man as God, they rewrote it and spread it across the people. Yes, within Europe. Arabs are traditionally Jews as well, a businessman elite Jew called Muhammed fought against this Christianity blasphemy, they were later called Islam because they forced Christianity out of Africa and left warriors to uphold Judaism in Africa (now Islam) However, the Europeans eventually brought in the christianity fable into Africa via the Portuguese trade with the western Africans via the Atlantic ocean.. Jews are Jews. Christianity is an effort to stand the Roman rule via the Roman Catholic church, Islam was an effort to erase the Roman Catholicism lies. It was mentioned in the Quran that the people are receiving false teaching quoted in the name of God. It was a painful time for Jews. monothesis. The concept of Trinity was also introduced. Jews were enslaved, exiled and killed and Christianity did it's havoc.romans ruled, their time has gone I suppose. 400yrs is past. We are awaiting our return home to Jerusalem. Most of us are confused for their is no record of our past but in the torat yet, Roman was a formidable military empire. When a hunter tells the battle story, he always win against the lion

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  13. I found a religious contradiction..How can someone cleans his sins in a way that God didn't tell him to..They invented a rule as holy war cleanses sins..as the bible does not say that..

    So the crusades were like an christian sect(or could be a cult??idk) fighting for salvation that God didn't guarentee anywhere in their scripture..Meaning the crusades listened to what the pope said when the pope has no accountabilty and authority over sins(ie. forgiving sins)
    Well..One of many contradictions..

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  14. Uneasy neighbors? You mean Islam conquering christian lands, taking christian slaves, and forcing people to convert for over 400 years?

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  15. 6:41 "When the reached Constantinople, the Emperor quickly ferried the to Anatolia to be rid off them." LOL It sounded funnier when these people were ambushed and slaughtered by Turks.

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  16. At this point in history the middle east was a lot more intellectually and culturally developed than the west. Basically the Franks were the terrorists of their time.

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  17. Not only the Franks, Brittany was present at the first crusade the Bretons are in part descendants of Welsh and Cornish. Here, the Breton received their historic flag, the Kroaz-du, the black cross on a white background

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  18. The quality of this presentation is beyond excellent! The audio visual is astonishing, the storytelling is dramatic! Simply world class!

    Reply
  19. The modern crusade is what was started by Bush, where the USA soldiers bombed innocent people by writing Bible verses on the bombs.
    Samuel 15: 3
    Luke 22 :36
    Mathew 15: 4
    Exodus 21: 7

    Oh the Happy times when the theists like Christians and Atheists like Communists and socialists were busy Killing each other during WW1&2.

    Reply
  20. Looking at our history… We can all conclude that the human race is something very filthy….And to be honest … NOTHING has changed. Only the decor has changed….
    It all just has a fancy name like UN…. EU…. UAE…

    Reply
  21. Epic History Tv. I watch a lot of History on YouTube, various topics. This is one of the best put together and narrated. 💯. You have a new subscriber.

    Reply
  22. It may be time for the next crusade and take the ME back, there's too much history to just give it up to the Sultans.

    Reply
  23. oh now i know how they started the war.. its not because of god voice but because human heart full of hatred, envy and ego.. no wonder theres so much natural disaster occured.. i guess soon there will be a catastropic disaster to wipe out all the humanity.. only the true repentence will be survived..

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  24. Your history is a little off, the reason for the poor persons Crusade which is the first crusade, was to protect pilgrims simple Christians being kind mind their own business trying to make it to Jerusalem and come back home this is 900 ad people. The caliphs of the Muslim world were the aggressors

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  25. My ancestor was involved in leading the first crusade. His name was Robert Skynnar. He was the son of badouin blois, half brother of William the conqueror

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  26. The "First Crusade" was actually the Moslem jihad into Europe in 711, 384 years before the Christian "Crusades." The Christians were only retaliating and seeking to liberate formerly Christian lands from Moslem control. The Moslems kept trying to conquer Europe until they were defeated in the Siege of Vienna in 1683.

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  27. Meanwhile in the domain of the gods, a glorious war is being fought between the god of Christian and of Muslim to help their respective followers.

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  28. It is messed up how the video talks about the Christendom but not the Muslim Empire/Turks. So one sided. Why doesn't this video mention the Turks were Muslim and the millions they slaughtered over the 400 years trying to conquer everyone before the Crusades? Go do more research on your own to get more of the story. His facts are good but the details are cloaked so you won't understand what was going on during this time frame.

    Reply
  29. Manzikert (Malazgirt) 1071 was the start of the turks coming to anotolia, but why doesnt this guy sayin something about how many ppl were the turks against the byzantines?
    Lemme tell you guys 🙂
    It was 50.000 turks against 250.000/300.000 byzantine troops nd they failed. Dont ever think that 1 turk cant do anything.

    Reply
  30. The crusades were always with 100.000 more ppl then every other enemy of them. And why dont you say that the crusaders murdered babys kids innocent ppl? They burned the whole city and raped the woman. Why dont you fkin tell this to the ppl? You guys only wanna show the ppl the things that they need to know.. more then that is gonna be awfull and disgustting for the europians.

    Reply

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